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In terms of technology, air-conditioning systems are becoming more and more complex. As a result, all Behr Hella Service components and their function have to be perfectly matched to the driver's demand for comfort to ensure properly functioning vehicle air-conditioning. The comprehensive system range offers your customers outstanding service.
The air-conditioning compressor is usually driven by the engine via a V-belt or ribbed V-belt. It compresses and transports the refrigerant in the system. There are different compressor designs available. The refrigerant is sucked in as a gas at low temperature from the evaporator; it is then compressed. It is then forwarded in a gaseous state at high temperature and high pressure to the condenser. The compressor can be dimensioned depending on the size of the system. The compressor is filled with special lubricating oil. Part of the oil circulates through the air-conditioning system with the refrigerant.
Bearing damage and leaks are the most common causes of failures and can often be attributed to poor maintenance.
Additional information about compressors from Behr Hella Service:
The job of the condenser is to cool down the refrigerant that has become heated during compression in the compressor. The hot refrigerant gas flows into the condenser, discharging heat to the surroundings via its tubes and fins. Cooling reduces the pressure of the refrigerant and the state of aggregation of the refrigerant (which had been gaseous) liquefies. The condenser is installed in front of the engine radiator.
Brazed flat tube condensers have become established on the market thanks to their high performance and slim design. The cost of logistics and assembly can be reduced significantly for automotive manufacturers by using a condenser module. It consists of a brazed unit made up of a flat tube condenser and collection/expansion tank with integrated dryer. Due to the special installation location, failures of an environmental nature can occur caused by soiling or rock impacts. Defects caused by front-impact accidents occur particularly often.
The filter elements of the air-conditioning system are referred to as either filter dryers or accumulators, depending on the type of system involved. The job of the filter dryer is to extract foreign matter and moisture from the refrigerant. The liquid refrigerant enters the filter dryer, flows through a hygroscopic filter and leaves the filter-dryer again in a liquid state.
The top part of a filter dryer is used simultaneously as a compensation chamber and the bottom part is used as a refrigerant store to compensate for pressure fluctuations in the system.
Depending on its design, the filter dryer can only remove a certain amount of humidity - then the drying medium is saturated and no longer in a position to absorb further humidity. Therefore, the filter dryer must normally be replaced every 2 years or each time the refrigerant circuit is opened. Ageing of the filter dryer can lead to severe defects in the air-conditioning system.
The expansion/throttle valve represents the interface between the high-pressure and low-pressure sections in the refrigerant circuit and is installed upstream from the evaporator. The liquid refrigerant is injected into the evaporator via the expansion/throttle valve. The refrigerant expands and evaporates, releasing evaporation cooling. The refrigerant flow through the expansion/throttle valve is regulated to achieve optimum cooling output in the evaporator. Humidity and soiling in the air-conditioning system can severely impact the functional capability of expansion/throttle valves and lead to malfunctions.
The evaporator is located in the vehicle cabin. It is installed below the dashboard and integrated into the ventilation system. The evaporator is used to exchange heat between the ambient air and the refrigerant in the air-conditioning system. The refrigerant entering the evaporator under high pressure expands, i.e. it converts from a liquid to a gaseous state, and thus evaporates in the component. The resulting evaporation cooling is discharged to the environment via the large surface of the evaporator and routed to the vehicle cabin through the blower airflow.
Additional information about evaporators from Behr Hella Service:
Various shunt relays are controlled by the pressure switch to ensure that the air-conditioning is used safely and effectively under all conditions. Individual system components are switched on and off at defined pressure points in this process. The pressure switches may fail due to contacting problems or soiling. Regular system maintenance prevents failures.
Electrically driven controls for air-conditioning systems ensure that the air flow in the vehicle cabin is distributed correctly. These actuators are mainly used in automatically regulated air-conditioning systems to control the air flaps or blending flaps so that the air flow is channeled to the correct area. A defective actuator can pose a safety hazard if a fogged or iced-over window compromises visibility. In addition to the aforementioned safety hazards, incorrect distribution of the air flows can also lower comfort levels and the concentration or awareness of the driver due to the suboptimal cabin temperature or draft, for example.
Additional information about compressors from Behr Hella Service:
Electric controls for blending flaps
The blower fan is used to ventilate the inside of the car. It guarantees visibility and a pleasant interior climate. This is a must in terms of safety and driving comfort. Failure of the fan results in an uncomfortable interior climate, which has a negative impact on the driver's concentration. This represents a significant reduction in safety. Lack of ventilation can also cause the windscreen to fog up. Visibility limited by fogged up windows is a major safety risk.
Blower controllers are generally found near the blower fan or directly on the fan. The controlling or triggering of the blower fan is carried out with the help of an electrical or electronic blower controller.
The electrical blower controller has several resistors and usually an integrated thermal fuse. In this way the blower can be operated at several different speeds and, whenever overload occurs, it can be switched off in order to protect other components.
The electronic blower controller is driven by a pulse width modulated signal. This means that it can control the blower in an infinitely variable way and thus produce optimal air conditioning. As a result of its ability to self-diagnose, it provides feedback on status and errors to the control unit concerned.
Oil plays an important role in the air-conditioning system, whether it is required when the compressor is replaced or for refilling during air-conditioning service. Like blood in the human body, the oil fulfills vital tasks in the air-conditioning system. However, the use of high-grade compressor oil is critical for the reliable and continuous operation of the system. The use of low-quality or the wrong oil—just like with the engine—leads to increased wear, premature compressor failure and loss of warranty/guarantee.
In our range, we have high-grade mineral and synthetic compressor oils.
Additional information about oils from Behr Hella Service:
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In this booklet we describe modern air-conditioning systems and their technical background. In this context, we also discuss their function, causes of failure, special features and diagnostic methods.